University of Hertfordshire

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  • Katherine M. Livingstone
  • Carlos Celis-Morales
  • Anna L. Macready
  • Rodrigo San-Cristobal
  • Santiago Navas-Carretero
  • Cyril F M Marsaux
  • Clare B. O'Donovan
  • Silvia Kolossa
  • George Moschonis
  • Marianne C. Walsh
  • Eileen R. Gibney
  • Lorraine Brennan
  • Jildau Bouwman
  • Yannis Manios
  • Miroslaw Jarosz
  • J. Alfredo Martinez
  • Hannelore Daniel
  • Wim H. Saris
  • Thomas E. Gundersen
  • Christian A. Drevon
  • Michael J. Gibney
  • John C. Mathers
  • Julie A Lovegrove
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Original languageEnglish
Article number49
Number of pages15
JournalNutrients
Journal publication date6 Jan 2018
Volume10
Issue1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jan 2018

Abstract

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.

Notes

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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