University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors

Documents

  • V. Heesen
  • Buie II E.
  • C. J. Huff
  • L. A. Perez
  • J. G. Woolsey
  • D. A. Rafferty
  • A. Basu
  • R. Beck
  • E. Brinks
  • C. Horellou
  • E. Scannapieco
  • M. Brüggen
  • R. -J. Dettmar
  • K. Sendlinger
  • B. Nikiel-Wroczyński
  • K. T. Chyży
  • P.N. Best
  • George H. Heald
  • R. Paladino
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Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Journal publication date15 Oct 2018
Early online date15 Oct 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Oct 2018

Abstract

Radio continuum (RC) emission in galaxies allows us to measure star formation rates (SFRs) unaffected by extinction due to dust, of which the low-frequency part is uncontaminated from thermal (free-free) emission. We calibrate the conversion from the spatially resolved 140 MHz RC emission to the SFR surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$) at 1 kpc scale. We used recent observations of three galaxies (NGC 3184, 4736, and 5055) from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS), and archival LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) data of NGC 5194. Maps were created with the facet calibration technique and converted to radio $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ maps using the Condon relation. We compared these maps with hybrid $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ maps from a combination of GALEX far-ultraviolet and Spitzer 24 $\mu\rm m$ data using plots tracing the relation at $1.2\times 1.2$-kpc$^2$ resolution. The RC emission is smoothed with respect to the hybrid $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ owing to the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs). This results in a sublinear relation $(\Sigma_{\rm SFR})_{\rm RC} \propto [(\Sigma_{\rm SFR})_{\rm hyb}]^{a}$, where $a=0.59\pm 0.13$ (140 MHz) and $a=0.75\pm 0.10$ (1365 MHz). Both relations have a scatter of $\sigma = 0.3~\rm dex$. If we restrict ourselves to areas of young CREs ($\alpha > -0.65$; $I_\nu \propto \nu^\alpha$), the relation becomes almost linear at both frequencies with $a\approx 0.9$ and a reduced scatter of $\sigma = 0.2~\rm dex$. We then simulate the effect of CRE transport by convolving the hybrid $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ maps with a Gaussian kernel until the RC-SFR relation is linearised; CRE transport lengths are $l=1$-5 kpc. Solving the CRE diffusion equation, we find diffusion coefficients of $D=(0.13$-$1.5) \times 10^{28} \rm cm^2\,s^{-1}$ at 1 GeV. A RC-SFR relation at $1.4$ GHz can be exploited to measure SFRs at redshift $z \approx 10$ using $140$ MHz observations.

Notes

9 figures, 6 tables and 17 pages. This paper is part of the LOFAR surveys data release 1 and has been accepted for publication in a special edition of A&A that will appear in Feb 2019, volume 622. The catalogues and images from the data release will be publicly available on lofar-surveys.org upon publication of the journal. Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics. © 2018 ESO.

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