University of Hertfordshire


  • Adrian Adrian Martinez-Melendez
  • Laura Tijerina-Rodrıguez
  • Rayo Morfin-Otero
  • Adrian Camacho-Ortiz
  • Licet Villarreal-Trevino
  • Hugo Sanchez-Alanıs
  • Eduardo Rodrıguez-Noriega
  • Simon Baines
  • Samantha Flores-Trevino
  • Hector Jesus Maldonado-Garza
  • Elvira Garza-Gonzalez
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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)386-392
JournalMicrobial Drug Resistance
Journal publication date1 May 2018
Early online date27 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


OBJECTIVE: To assess drug susceptibility and characterize Clostridium difficile ribotypes in isolates from two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico.

METHODS: Isolates were evaluated for genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of mutations associated with drug resistance. PCR ribotyping was performed using a combination of gel-based and capillary electrophoresis-based approaches.

RESULTS: MIC50 and MIC90 were ≥128 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin. There was no reduced susceptibility to metronidazole or tetracycline; however, reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (≥4 mg/L) and fidaxomicin (≥2 mg/L) was detected in 50 (40.3%) and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Furthermore, the rpoB Arg505Lys mutation was more frequently detected in isolates with high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to rifampicin (≥32 mg/L) (OR = 52.5; 95% CI = 5.17-532.6; p < 0.000). Of the 124 C. difficile isolates recovered, 84 (66.7%) were of ribotype 027, 18 (14.5%) of ribotype 001, and the remainder were other ribotypes (353, 255, 220, 208, 176, 106, 076, 020, 019, 017, 014, 012, 003, and 002).

CONCLUSION: Ribotypes 027 and 001 were the most frequent C. difficile isolates recovered in this study, and demonstrated higher MICs. Furthermore, we found four isolates with reduced susceptibility to fidaxomicin, raising a concern since this drug is currently unavailable in Mexican Hospitals.


© 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

ID: 13597771