University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors

Galactic chemical evolution: Carbon through zinc

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review


  • 906817

    Submitted manuscript, 1 MB, PDF document

  • C. Kobayashi
  • Hideyuki Umeda
  • Ken'ichi Nomoto
  • Nozomu Tominaga
  • Takuya Ohkubo
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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages27
Pages (from-to)1145-1171
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Journal publication date20 Dec 2006
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2006


We calculate the evolution of heavy-element abundances from C to Zn in the solar neighborhood, adopting our new nucleosynthesis yields. Our yields are calculated for wide ranges of metallicity (Z = 0-Z circle dot) and the explosion energy (normal supernovae and hypernovae), based on the light-curve and spectra fitting of individual supernovae. The elemental abundance ratios are in good agreement with observations. Among the alpha-elements, O, Mg, Si, S, and Ca show a plateau at [Fe/H] <= -1, while Ti is underabundant overall. The observed abundance of Zn ([Zn/Fe] similar to 0) can be explained only by the high-energy explosion models, as it requires a large contribution of hypernovae. The observed decrease in the odd-Z elements (Na, Al, and Cu) toward low [Fe/H] is reproduced by the metallicity effect on nucleosynthesis. The iron-peak elements (Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni) are consistent with the observed mean values at -2.5 less than or similar to [Fe/H] less than or similar to -1, and the observed trend at the lower metallicity can be explained by the energy effect. We also show the abundance ratios and the metallicity distribution functions of the Galactic bulge, halo, and thick disk. Our results suggest that the formation timescale of the thick disk is similar to 1-3 Gyr.

ID: 811084