University of Hertfordshire

Herbal Highs: Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Herbal Highs : Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology. / Graziano, Silvia; Orsolini, Laura; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Tittarelli, Roberta; Schifano, Fabrizio; Pichini, Simona.

In: Current neuropharmacology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2017, p. 750-761.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Graziano, S, Orsolini, L, Rotolo, MC, Tittarelli, R, Schifano, F & Pichini, S 2017, 'Herbal Highs: Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology', Current neuropharmacology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 750-761. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X14666161031144427

APA

Vancouver

Author

Graziano, Silvia ; Orsolini, Laura ; Rotolo, Maria Concetta ; Tittarelli, Roberta ; Schifano, Fabrizio ; Pichini, Simona. / Herbal Highs : Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology. In: Current neuropharmacology. 2017 ; Vol. 15, No. 5. pp. 750-761.

Bibtex

@article{2796e22fc2e04b608dd62f65432689c8,
title = "Herbal Highs: Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of {"}herbal highs{"}: plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction.OBJECTIVE: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used {"}herbal highs{"} with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key.words: herbal highs, Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea and Rivea corymbosa; Catha edulis; Datura stramonium; Piper methysticum; Mitragyna speciosa.RESULTS: Psychoactive plants here reviewed have been known and used from ancient times, even if for some of them limited information still exist regarding subjective and neuropharmacological effects and consequent eventual toxicity when plants are used alone or in combination with {"}classical{"} drugs of abuse.CONCLUSION: Some {"}herbal highs{"} should be classified as harmful drugs since chronic administration has been linked with addiction and cognitive impairment; for some others taking into consideration only the recent trends of abuse, studies investigating these aspects are lacking.",
keywords = "Journal Article",
author = "Silvia Graziano and Laura Orsolini and Rotolo, {Maria Concetta} and Roberta Tittarelli and Fabrizio Schifano and Simona Pichini",
note = "Copyright{\circledC} Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.2174/1570159X14666161031144427",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "750--761",
journal = "Current neuropharmacology",
issn = "1570-159X",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Herbal Highs

T2 - Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology

AU - Graziano, Silvia

AU - Orsolini, Laura

AU - Rotolo, Maria Concetta

AU - Tittarelli, Roberta

AU - Schifano, Fabrizio

AU - Pichini, Simona

N1 - Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - BACKGROUND: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of "herbal highs": plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction.OBJECTIVE: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used "herbal highs" with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key.words: herbal highs, Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea and Rivea corymbosa; Catha edulis; Datura stramonium; Piper methysticum; Mitragyna speciosa.RESULTS: Psychoactive plants here reviewed have been known and used from ancient times, even if for some of them limited information still exist regarding subjective and neuropharmacological effects and consequent eventual toxicity when plants are used alone or in combination with "classical" drugs of abuse.CONCLUSION: Some "herbal highs" should be classified as harmful drugs since chronic administration has been linked with addiction and cognitive impairment; for some others taking into consideration only the recent trends of abuse, studies investigating these aspects are lacking.

AB - BACKGROUND: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of "herbal highs": plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction.OBJECTIVE: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used "herbal highs" with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key.words: herbal highs, Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea and Rivea corymbosa; Catha edulis; Datura stramonium; Piper methysticum; Mitragyna speciosa.RESULTS: Psychoactive plants here reviewed have been known and used from ancient times, even if for some of them limited information still exist regarding subjective and neuropharmacological effects and consequent eventual toxicity when plants are used alone or in combination with "classical" drugs of abuse.CONCLUSION: Some "herbal highs" should be classified as harmful drugs since chronic administration has been linked with addiction and cognitive impairment; for some others taking into consideration only the recent trends of abuse, studies investigating these aspects are lacking.

KW - Journal Article

U2 - 10.2174/1570159X14666161031144427

DO - 10.2174/1570159X14666161031144427

M3 - Article

C2 - 27799032

VL - 15

SP - 750

EP - 761

JO - Current neuropharmacology

JF - Current neuropharmacology

SN - 1570-159X

IS - 5

ER -