University of Hertfordshire


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Original languageEnglish
Article number8676087
Number of pages15
Pages (from-to)5657-5671
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Journal publication date28 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2019


Motivated by heterogeneous network (HetNet) design in improving coverage and by millimeter-wave (mmWave) transmission offering an abundance of extra spectrum, we present a general analytical framework shedding light on the downlink of realistic mmWave HetNets consisting of K tiers of randomly located base stations. Specifically, we model, by virtue of stochastic geometry tools, the multi-Tier multi-user (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) mmWave network degraded by the inevitable residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and channel aging. Given this setting, we derive the coverage probability and the area spectral efficiency (ASE), and we subsequently evaluate the impact of residual transceiver hardware impairments and channel aging on these metrics. Different path-loss laws for line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight are accounted for the analysis, which are among the distinguishing features of mmWave systems. Among the findings, we show that the RATHIs have a meaningful impact at the high-signal-To-noise-ratio regime, while the transmit additive distortion degrades further than the receive distortion the system performance. Moreover, serving fewer users proves to be preferable, and the more directive the mmWaves are, the higher the ASE becomes.


© 2019 IEEE.

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