University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • B. Mingo
  • J. H. Croston
  • M. J. Hardcastle
  • P. N. Best
  • K. J. Duncan
  • R. Morganti
  • H. J. A. Rottgering
  • J. Sabater
  • T. W. Shimwell
  • W. L. Williams
  • M. Brienza
  • G. Gurkan
  • V. H. Mahatma
  • L. K. Morabito
  • I. Prandoni
  • M. Bondi
  • J. Ineson
  • S. Mooney
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Original languageEnglish
Article numberstz1901
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Journal publication date1 Sep 2019
Early online date10 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019


The relative positions of the high and low surface brightness regions of radio-loud active galaxies in the 3CR sample were found by Fanaroff and Riley to be correlated with their luminosity. We revisit this canonical relationship with a sample of 5805 extended radio-loud AGN from the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS), compiling the most complete dataset of radio-galaxy morphological information obtained to date. We demonstrate that, for this sample, radio luminosity does *not* reliably predict whether a source is edge-brightened (FRII) or centre-brightened (FRI). We highlight a large population of low-luminosity FRIIs, extending three orders of magnitude below the traditional FR break, and demonstrate that their host galaxies are on average systematically fainter than those of high-luminosity FRIIs and of FRIs matched in luminosity. This result supports the jet power/environment paradigm for the FR break: low-power jets may remain undisrupted and form hotspots in lower mass hosts. We also find substantial populations that appear physically distinct from the traditional FR classes, including candidate restarting sources and ``hybrids''. We identify 459 bent-tailed sources, which we find to have a significantly higher SDSS cluster association fraction (at $z


21 pages, 4 tables, 16 Figures. Accepted for publication on Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS). Our LoTSS morphological catalogue containing classifications for 5805 extended radio-loud AGN is available from


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