University of Hertfordshire

  • Costas Chryssanthopoulos
  • Charis Tsolakis
  • Lindsay Bottoms
  • Argyris Toubekis
  • Elias Zacharogiannis
  • Zoi Pafili
  • Maria Maridaki
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Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Journal publication date1 Feb 2019
Early online date1 Feb 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Feb 2019


The purposes of the study were to examine fluid balance during fencing training and a possible effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on fluid balance and performance in fencing at a thermoneutral environment. Sixteen fencers, performed two 120-min training sessions separated by 7-14 days under similar environmental conditions (Temperature: 20.3 oC, Humidity: 45-47%). Each session consisted of 60-min conditioning exercises followed by 10 bouts of 3 min duration against the same opponent with 3 min interval between each bout. Participants ingested at regular intervals either a 6% CHO-E solution or artificially sweetened water (P) in a counterbalanced order. No difference was observed between conditions in the heart rate responses, perceived exertion, changes in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, number of bouts won, or lost, or points for and against. Considerable variability was observed in body weight changes which revealed significant differences at Time level (i.e. Pre vs. Post Exercise) (F1,15=9.31, p=0.008, η2=0.38), whereas no difference was found between conditions (i.e. CHO-E vs. P) (F1,15=0.43, p=0.52, η2=0.03) and ConditionsXTime interaction (F1,15=3.57, p=0.078, η2=0.19). Fluid loss was not significantly different between conditions (p=0.08, d=47). Blood glucose was higher (p<0.01) post-exercise in CHO-E, whereas blood lactate was similar between conditions. In conclusion, the CHO-E solution was as effective as the artificially sweetened water in terms of fluid balance and fencing performance at a thermoneutral environment. Due to large individual variability fencers should monitor their fluid intake and body fluid loss

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