University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors

  • T. De Vuyst
  • R. Vignjevic
  • A. Azorin Albero
  • K. Hughes
  • J. C. Campbell
  • N. Djordjevic
View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-37
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
Early online date16 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017


This paper presents the results of an investigation of the ballistic limits and failure modes of AA2024-T351 sheets impacted by cubical projectiles. The effect of cube orientation on the ballistic limit and failure modes was considered in detail. Three impact configurations were investigated. Configuration one, two and three considered face, edge or corner impacts correspondingly. The experimental results were complemented with finite element analysis results in order to explain the observations. The lowest ballistic limit (202 m/s) was observed when the cube edge impacted on the target. In the cube face impacts, the ballistic limit was higher (223 m/s), and the highest ballistic limit (254 m/s) was observed for the corner impact. Although the face impact did not have the lowest ballistic limit, this impact configuration resulted in the least amount of projectile energy loss for impacts above the ballistic limit. With the aid of finite element modelling, it was possible to develop a better understanding of the test results and explain that the observed differences in impact response were not just due to a difference in projectile frontal area, but also due to the combination of the localised deformation near the projectile impact point and the resulting global (dishing) deformation.


© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

ID: 17389991