University of Hertfordshire


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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)3177-3184
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Journal publication date1 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


This paper describes the use of TEHA for HCl recovery from a leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. Four organic extractants were tested including TEHA, Alamine 336, Cyanex 923 and TBP. TEHA
organic system performed best in terms of acid extraction, stripping and scrubbing efficiency. The successive extraction shows that more than 99% HCl was extracted after three stages of extraction. Scrubbing tests with
different A/O ratios at different temperatures were conducted to identify the optimal conditions to separate HCl, Mn and Fe. After scrubbing the loaded organic solution at an A/O ratio of 1:4 and 22 °C, 94–100% of entrained
metals were removed in a single contact with only 5.2% acid lost in the loaded scrub liquor. It was found that the phase disengagement time was in the range of 2– 4 min for both extraction and stripping, indicating
reasonable fast phase separation. Based on these results from batch tests, it can be expected that after optimisation in a counter current circuit consisting of extraction, scrubbing, selective and bulk stripping, nearly all
metals and HCl would be recovered and recycled.


This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of the following article: Uchenna Kesieme, Andreas Chrysanthou, Maurizio Catulli, and Chu Yong Cheng, ‘The optimal use of tris-2-ethylhexylamine to recover hydrochloric acid and metals from leach solutions and comparison with other extractants’, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 (2): 3177-3184, April 2018. Under embargo until 1 May 2019. The final, definitive version is available online via:

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