University of Hertfordshire

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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
Pages (from-to)494-514
JournalTeachers and teaching: theory and practice
Journal publication date19 May 2017
Early online date29 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2017


This article presents Malaysian student teachers' reports of using an action, reflection and modelling (ARM) pedagogical approach during their placements in Malaysian primary schools. The ARM approach was designed to support the implementation of the Malaysian primary school mathematics curriculum, which involved changing classroom practice in learning and teaching. It was developed and used during a Malaysia-UK collaborative project to construct a Bachelor of Education (Honours) degree programme in Primary Mathematics for a cohort of 120 student teachers in Malaysia. The three principles integral to the ARM approach were repeatedly made explicit to the student practitioners who were engaged in learning and teaching on the new degree programme. Using findings from surveys carried out with the students at the end of their first and final placements, this article provides examples of the way some of them described ARM and recounted how they had used the approach in the classroom. Four of these narratives are used as 'vignettes' to illustrate the students' perceptions of using new ways of learning and teaching in primary schools and to inform and enable a discussion of the relationship between theory and practice in teacher education.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor and Francis in Teachers and Teaching, published online 29 July 2016. The version of record is available online at:

ID: 10393080