3D printing of a multi-layered polypill containing six drugs using a novel stereolithographic method

Pamela Robles-Martinez, Xiaoyan Xu, Sarah J. Trenfield, Atheer Awad, Alvaro Goyanes, Richard Telford, Abdul W. Basit, Simon Gaisford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has demonstrated great potential for multi-material fabrication because of its capability for printing bespoke and spatially separated material conformations. Such a concept could revolutionise the pharmaceutical industry, enabling the production of personalised, multi-layered drug products on demand. Here, we developed a novel stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing method that, for the first time, can be used to fabricate multi-layer constructs (polypills) with variable drug content and/or shape. Using this technique, six drugs, including paracetamol, caffeine, naproxen, chloramphenicol, prednisolone and aspirin, were printed with different geometries and material compositions. Drug distribution was visualised using Raman microscopy, which showed that whilst separate layers were successfully printed, several of the drugs diffused across the layers depending on their amorphous or crystalline phase. The printed constructs demonstrated excellent physical properties and the different material inclusions enabled distinct drug release profiles of the six actives within dissolution tests. For the first time, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of SLA printing as an innovative platform for multi-drug therapy production, facilitating a new era of personalised polypills.

Original languageEnglish
Article number274
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • 3D printed drug products
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Fixed-dose combinations
  • Multiple-layer dosage forms
  • Personalized medicines
  • Printlets
  • Stereolithography
  • Tablets
  • Three-dimensional printing
  • Vat polymerisation


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