3D Printing of Dietary Products for the Management of Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Pediatric Populations

Paola Carou-Senra, Lucía Rodríguez-Pombo, Einés Monteagudo-Vilavedra, Atheer Awad, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Abdul W. Basit, Alvaro Goyanes, María L. Couce

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Downloads (Pure)


The incidence of Inborn Error of Intermediary Metabolism (IEiM) diseases may be low, yet collectively, they impact approximately 6–10% of the global population, primarily affecting children. Precise treatment doses and strict adherence to prescribed diet and pharmacological treatment regimens are imperative to avert metabolic disturbances in patients. However, the existing dietary and pharmacological products suffer from poor palatability, posing challenges to patient adherence. Furthermore, frequent dose adjustments contingent on age and drug blood levels further complicate treatment. Semi-solid extrusion (SSE) 3D printing technology is currently under assessment as a pioneering method for crafting customized chewable dosage forms, surmounting the primary limitations prevalent in present therapies. This method offers a spectrum of advantages, including the flexibility to tailor patient-specific doses, excipients, and organoleptic properties. These elements are pivotal in ensuring the treatment’s efficacy, safety, and adherence. This comprehensive review presents the current landscape of available dietary products, diagnostic methods, therapeutic monitoring, and the latest advancements in SSE technology. It highlights the rationale underpinning their adoption while addressing regulatory aspects imperative for their seamless integration into clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number16010061
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
Issue number1
Early online date25 Dec 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Dec 2023


  • chewable formulations and oral drug products
  • intermediary metabolic diseases
  • direct ink writing 3D-printed drug delivery systems
  • pediatric patients
  • on-demand dispensing of pharmaceuticals and medicines
  • dietary therapy and supplements
  • extrusion-based three-dimensional printing of personalized pharma-inks


Dive into the research topics of '3D Printing of Dietary Products for the Management of Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Pediatric Populations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this