Four-dimensional (4D) printing and nanostructure have introduced the possibility of having systems for self-assembly, self-healing, and material properties changes. Layered printing allows creating compound and complex geometry previously in the general production path. The present chapter reviews and presents several recent and relevant studies on current additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D and 4D printings of nano and micro-structured polymer composites. These smart materials respond to external stimuli. Perspective on their possible use in all areas, including nanostructures of the implant, is considered. There are promising applications for 4D printing in the medical field. The need is to identify the research state and explore where this new set of technologies can be effectively implemented. Hence, this chapter outlines more on the practical application of AM/3D and 4D printings of nanostructured polymer composites in the medical field. This study further elucidates 4D printing as the latest technology that creates innovation and solves complex medical problems. It briefly describes 4D printing, details its difference from 3D Printing, and identifies five steps required to develop a medical model, using this technology and its possible medical applications implementation. Extensive studies carried out on 4D printing technology, and their detailed discussion is reported in this compendious review. But, there are decidedly fewer publications available in the medical field that clarify this quest. Finally, nine critical 4D Printing applications in the medical field, the main limitation of its requirement of significant investment and support for transformation, are stated in this informative report. The emerging applications of 4D printing and its advantages to biomedical engineering, especially in areas not covered by 3D printing technologies, are explained. Summarily, findings have proven that enhancing this technology's credibility provides extensive support in biomedical engineering. Especially with better smart medical devices of polymer composites, implants, tools, and how medical researchers can explore 4D printing technology to provide better services to patients and use such knowledge in institutions to improve life.
|Title of host publication
|Shape Memory Composites Based on Polymers and Metals for 4D Printing: Processes, Applications and Challenges
|M. R. Maurya, K. K. Sadasivuni, J-J. Cabibihan, S. Ahmad, S. Kazim
|Place of Publication
|Number of pages
|Published - 19 May 2022
|Shape memory composites based on polymers and metals for 4D printing
|Switzerland AG: Springer Nature.
- 4D Printing; Tissue engineering; Shape memory materials; Biomedical; Nanostructure; Polymer composites.