A 1.3 mm SMA Survey of 29 Variable Young Stellar Objects

Hauyu Baobab Liu, Michael M. Dunham, Ilaria Pascucci, Tyler L. Bourke, Naomi Hirano, Steven Longmore, Sean Andrews, Carlos Carrasco-González, Jan Forbrich, Roberto Galván-Madrid, Josep M. Girart, Joel D. Green, Carmen Juárez, Ágnes Kóspál, Carlo Felice Manara, Aina Palau, Michihiro Takami, Leonardo Testi, Eduard I. Vorobyov

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Context. Young stellar objects (YSOs) may undergo periods of active accretion (outbursts), during which the protostellar accretion rate is temporarily enhanced by a few orders of magnitude. Whether or not these accretion outburst YSOs possess similar dust and gas reservoirs to each other, and whether or not their dust and gas reservoirs are similar as quiescent YSOs, are issues yet to be clarified.Aims. The aim of this work is to characterize the millimeter thermal dust emission properties of a statistically significant sample of long and short duration accretion outburst YSOs (i.e., FUors and EXors) and the spectroscopically identified candidates of accretion outbursting YSOs (i.e., FUor-like objects). Methods. We have carried out extensive Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations mostly at ~225 GHz (1.33 mm) and ~272 GHz (1.10 mm), from 2008 to 2017. We covered accretion outburst YSOs located at <1 kpc distances from the solar system. Results. We analyze all the existing SMA data of such objects, both published and unpublished, in a coherent way to present a millimeter interferometric database of 29 objects. We obtained 21 detections at >3σ significance. Detected sources except for the two cases of V883 Ori and NGC 2071 MM3 were observed with ~1″ angular resolution. Overall our observed targets show a systematically higher millimeter luminosity distribution than those of the M > 0.3 MClass II YSOs in the nearby (400 pc) low-mass star-forming molecular clouds (e.g., Taurus, Lupus, Upp Scorpio, and Chameleon I). In addition, at 1 mm our observed confirmed binaries or triple-system sources are systematically fainter than the rest of the sources even though their 1 mm fluxes are broadly distributed. We may have detected ∼30-60% millimeter flux variability from V2494 Cyg and V2495 Cyg, from the observations separated by approximately one year.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA54
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • Radio continuum: ISM
  • Stars: formation
  • Stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
  • Submillimeter: ISM


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