A cross sectional study of impact and clinical risk factors of antipsychotic-induced OCD

Marjan Biria, Fiona-Xiaofei Huang, Yulia Worbe, Naomi Fineberg, Trevor W. Robbins, Emilio Fernandez-Egea

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A large proportion of schizophrenia patients treated with second generation antipsychotics will develop Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). However, there are few studies about the impact of this comorbidity and who is at higher risk. In this study of clozapine-treated patients, we aimed to determine the impact on outcome of clozapine-induced OCD, as well as the clinical and sociodemographic risk factors related to OCD-onset in clozapine patients. We had strict and novel inclusion criteria to minimise mis-identification of cases. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) was used to divide 231 clozapine-treated patients into extreme cases of OCD (OCI ≥ 24 or checking subscale ≥6) versus non-OCD (OCI <15 and checking subscale <4). The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), short version of Warwick-Edinburgh Wellbeing scale and Clinical Global Impression for schizophrenia (CGI) scales were used to determine outcome. Socio-demographic information was used to identify the risk factors for OCD development. We found that schizophrenia patients with OCD symptoms had a significantly lower patient rated wellbeing scores (p < 0.001) only (no difference in clinician rated wellbeing scores), higher CGI positive (p < 0.01) and higher CGI depressive scores (p < 0.05). The only risk factors that reached significance level were higher treatment dose (p < 0.01) and younger paternal age at birth (p < 0.05). There is scope for future studies based on e.g. imaging and genetic studies to further investigate causality, and in improving clinician screening for OCD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-913
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
Issue number8
Early online date11 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • Antipsychotic
  • Clozapine
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Schizophrenia


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