Pesticides are vital in meeting the challenge of feeding the rapidly increasing world population. However, it is crucial that they are used in a way that does not compromise the safety of humans or the environment. Non-dietary worker risk assessments consider the amount of residue which can be transferred from plant foliage to the skin or clothes, known as dislodgeable foliar residues (DFRs). DFR data scarcity due to the costly and seasonal characteristics of DFR studies is an obstacle to the extrapolation of DFR data to different crops/leaves. This paper validates a new proof-of-concept technique to investigate factors that may affect DFR (leaf texture) using the fungicide difenoconazole EC 10% as an example on various leaves (i.e., French bean, soybean, tomato, oilseed rape, and wheat). DFR was the lowest in the case of oilseed rape (31.0 ± 3.4%) and the highest in French beans (82.0 ± 2.9%). This significant difference in DFR in the findings of this study sheds light on the importance of the leaf surface as a major factor affecting DFR and supports the application of the laboratory method for more extensive data generation. More data generation would enable the extrapolation saving money and resources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number236777801
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B
Issue number8
Early online date10 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2023


  • Pesticides
  • Pesticide residues
  • Occupational health
  • DFR
  • DFR proof of concept
  • pesticides
  • difenoconazole
  • pesticide residue analysis
  • non-dietary risk assessment
  • worker exposure
  • Dislodgeable foliar residue
  • pesticide risk assessment


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