A Spitzer view of star formation in the Cygnus X North complex

I.M. Beerer, X.P. Koenig, J.L. Hora, R.A. Gutermuth, S. Bontemps, S.T. Megeath, N. Schneider, F. Motte, S. Carey, R. Simon, E. Keto, H.A. Smith, L.E. Allen, G.G. Fazio, K.E. Kraemer, S. Price, D. Mizuno, J.D. Adams, J. Hernandez, P.W. Lucas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


We present new images and photometry of the massive star-forming complex Cygnus X obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. A combination of IRAC, MIPS, UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey, and Two Micron All Sky Survey data are used to identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs). Of the 8231 sources detected exhibiting infrared excess in Cygnus X North, 670 are classified as class I and 7249 are classified as class II. Using spectra from the FAST Spectrograph at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory and Hectospec on the MMT, we spectrally typed 536 sources in the Cygnus X complex to identify the massive stars. We find that YSOs tend to be grouped in the neighborhoods of massive B stars (spectral types B0 to B9). We present a minimal spanning tree analysis of clusters in two regions in Cygnus X North. The fraction of infrared excess sources that belong to clusters with ≥10 members is found to be 50%-70%. Most class II objects lie in dense clusters within blown out H II regions, while class I sources tend to reside in more filamentary structures along the bright-rimmed clouds, indicating possible triggered star formation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-693
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010


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