A transfer learning‐based system for grading breast invasive ductal carcinoma

Radhakrishnan Sujatha, Jyotir Moy Chatterjee, Anastassia Angelopoulou, Epaminondas Kapetanios, Parvathaneni Naga Srinivasu, Duraisamy Jude Hemanth

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Breast carcinoma is a sort of malignancy that begins in the breast. Breast malignancy cells generally structure a tumour that can routinely be seen on an x‐ray or felt like a lump. Despite advances in screening, treatment, and observation that have improved patient endurance rates, breast carcinoma is the most regularly analyzed malignant growth and the subsequent driving reason for malignancy mortality among ladies. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most boundless breast malignant growth with about 80% of all analyzed cases. It has been found from numerous types of research that artificial intelligence has tremendous capabilities, which is why it is used in various sectors, especially in the healthcare domain. In the initial phase of the medical field, mammography is used for diagnosis, and finding cancer in the case of a dense breast is challenging. The evolution of deep learning and applying the same in the findings are helpful for earlier tracking and medication. The authors have tried to utilize the deep learning concepts for grading breast invasive ductal carcinoma using Transfer Learning in the present work. The authors have used five transfer learning approaches here, namely VGG16, VGG19, InceptionReNetV2, DenseNet121, and DenseNet201 with 50 epochs in the Google Colab platform which has a single 12GB NVIDIA Tesla K80 graphical processing unit (GPU) support that can be used up to 12 h continuously. The dataset used for this work can be openly accessed from http://databiox.com. The experimental results that the authors have received regarding the algorithm's accuracy are as follows: VGG16 with 92.5%, VGG19 with 89.77%, InceptionReNetV2 with 84.46%, DenseNet121 with 92.64%, DenseNet201 with 85.22%. From the experimental results, it is clear that the DenseNet121 gives the maximum accuracy in terms of cancer grading, whereas the InceptionReNetV2 has minimal accuracy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalIET Image Processing
Early online date14 Oct 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Oct 2022


  • DenseNet121
  • DenseNet201
  • InceptionReNetV2
  • invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)
  • transfer learning (TL)
  • VGG16
  • VGG19


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