This paper provides insight into the work of nurse practitioners in three Australian states. Using a case study approach, the aim of the study is to give an account of some of the types of cases/patients who consult with the nurse practitioners in the states visited and to offer insight into one of the policy changes required to support the introduction of the nurse practitioner role. A snowball sampling technique was used to obtain the sample population of both 10 nurse practitioners and other health care personnel. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the 39 respondents in both samples. The analysis of the 10 nurse practitioner interviews reported here shows that these nurses undertook a wide range of roles. The results of the semi-structured interviews with the nurse practitioners are described using four of the 10 interviews and reporting them as case studies. The results highlighted the need to address legislation issues and to prepare nurses adequately for their clinical setting and address the difficulties of continuing education of rural nurses.