After critical care: patient support after critical care. A mixed method longitudinal study using email interviews and questionnaires

Natalie Pattison, Geraldine O'Gara, Janice Rattray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To explore experiences and needs over time, of patients discharged from ICU using the Intensive Care Experience (ICE-q) questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQoL (EQ-5D), associated clinical predictors (APACHE II, TISS, Length of stay, RIKER scores) and in-depth email interviewing.

METHODS: A mixed-method, longitudinal study of patients with >48hour ICU stays at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months using the ICE-q, HADS, EQ-5D triangulated with clinical predictors, including age, gender, length of stay (ICU and hospital), APACHE II and TISS. In-depth qualitative email interviews were completed at 1 month and 6 months. Grounded Theory analysis was applied to interview data and data were triangulated with questionnaire and clinical data.

RESULTS: Data was collected from January 2010 to March 2012 from 77 participants. Both mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale, utility scores and HADS scores improved from 2 weeks to 6 months, (p=<0.001; p=<0.001), but between 6 and 12 months, no change was found in data from either questionnaire, suggesting improvements level off. These variations were reflected in qualitative data themes: rehabilitation/recovery in the context of chronic illness; impact of critical care; emotional and psychological needs (including sub-themes of: information needs and relocation anxiety). The overarching, core theme related to adjustment of normality.

CONCLUSIONS: Patient recovery in this population appears to be shaped by ongoing illness and treatment. Email interviews offer a convenient method of gaining in-depth interview data and could be used as part of ICU follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-22
Number of pages10
JournalIntensive and Critical Care Nursing
Issue number4
Early online date4 Mar 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015


  • Aftercare
  • Aged
  • Anxiety
  • Critical Illness
  • Depression
  • Electronic Mail
  • Female
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Length of Stay
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Needs Assessment
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United Kingdom
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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