Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) drug classification using shallow one-dimensional convolutional neural network

Norfadzlia Mohd Yusof, Azah Kamilah Muda, Satrya Fajri Pratama, Ramon Carbo-Dorca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) drug analysis and identification are challenging and critical nowadays with the emergence production of new synthetic ATS drugs with sophisticated design compounds. In the present study, we proposed a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1DCNN) model to perform ATS drug classification as an alternative method. We investigate as well as explore the classification behavior of 1DCNN with the utilization of the existing novel 3D molecular descriptors as ATS drugs representation to become the model input. The proposed 1DCNN model is composed of one convolutional layer to reduce the model complexity. Besides, pooling operation that is a standard part of traditional CNN is not applied in this architecture to have more features in the classification phase. The dropout regularization technique is employed to improve model generalization. Experiments were conducted to find the optimal values for three dominant hyper-parameters of the 1DCNN model which are the filter size, transfer function, and batch size. Our findings found that kernel size 11, exponential linear unit (ELU) transfer function and batch size 32 are optimal for the 1DCNN model. A comparison with several machine learning classifiers has shown that our proposed 1DCNN has achieved comparable performance with the Random Forest classifier and competitive performance with the others. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1609-1619
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular diversity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • 1D convolutional neural network
  • Amphetamine-type stimulants
  • Drug classification
  • Moment invariants


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