An extended loo model with inhomogeneous scattering and its statistical properties

Anastasios K. Papazafeiropoulos, Stavros A. Kotsopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, an analytical model for a land mobile satellite channel is introduced that takes into consideration the Generalized Rice model for characterizing the small scale (fast) fading. The proposed model is enriched by the property of non-homogeneous scattering allowing higher flexibility and a more comprehensive description of the channel. In addition, a lognormal process affects the line of sight component, in order to characterize the large scale (slow) fading due to the shadowing effect caused by physical obstacles such as trees and small buildings. The main statistical properties of the model are investigated. Exact solutions for the power spectral density, the probability density function of the envelope and phase, and the cumulative distribution function of the envelope are derived. Approximate solutions for the level crossing rate and the average duration of fades are obtained. The validation of the model is confirmed by simulation and demonstrated by providing the best fit to certain measurement data corresponding to conditions of light and heavy shadowing. As a conclusion, the extended Loo model is applicable in realistic land mobile satellite channels subjected to various conditions and can be preferable because of its outperformance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-180
Number of pages18
JournalWireless Personal Communications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • Fading channels
  • First and second order statistics
  • Hoyt model
  • Power spectral density


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