Area-Time-Efficient Scalable Schoolbook Polynomial Multiplier for Lattice-Based Cryptography

Yahya Arzani Birgani, Somayyeh Timarchi, Ayesha Khalid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lattice-based cryptography (LBC) stands out as one of the most viable classes of quantum-resistant schemes. This brief explores a time-sharing approach, with different parallelism levels, for a crucial operation in LBC cryptosystems, i.e., polynomial multiplication. We also employ an innovative coefficient ordering method in our time-shared schoolbook polynomial multiplication (SPM) to combine the best of two worlds: design compactness and lower processing latency. Thus, our work offers a choice of design points with performance vs. resource trade-offs. Our fastest proposed design exhibits 80% and 57% reductions in LUTs and throughput, respectively, compared to the existing fully parallel SPM architecture (on Xilinx Ultrascale+), which lead to a 53% improvement in the area-time-product efficiency. Our smallest proposed design is more than $2.2\times $ faster than the existing low-cost parallel SPM architecture (on Xilinx Kintex-7) at the expense of 85% additional area resources.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9816112
Pages (from-to)5079-5083
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Issue number12
Early online date6 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Computer architecture
  • Cryptography
  • Random access memory
  • Pipeline processing
  • DH-HEMTs
  • Costs


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