Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit Based-Grey Wolf Optimizer for Interval Prediction of Voltage Margin Stability Index in Power Systems

Mohamed Massaoudi, Shady S. Refaat, Ali Ghrayeb, Haitham Abu-Rub

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Despite the importance of Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems for smart grids, the uncertainty of PV power outputs due to weather variations can cause power stability problems leading up to voltage collapse in power systems. Governed by load dynamics, data-driven short-term Voltage Stability Margin (VSM) assessment is a critical technique for power system design and operation. This paper addresses improving the VSM accuracy and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the predicted values using deep learning. Interval estimation of VSM is significant for monitoring short-term voltage stability in real-time against fast voltage collapse and sustained low voltage without recovery. The proposed solution lies in the use of a Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) optimized by a multi-objective Grey Wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm. Time domain simulation results are conducted using IEEE59 and IEEE Nordic-44 bus systems to provide the training samples and maintain a high level of grid observability for the grid stability evaluation. The generated N-l contingency test cases data were conducted using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E)-based time domain simulations. The generated features from fault-induced voltage events include the post-disturbance voltage magnitude, angles, frequencies, and active and reactive power trajectories of the system buses. The obtained results show that the proposed method can enable timely stability assessment with higher effectiveness.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference (TPEC)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665490719
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2023
Event2023 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference (TPEC) - Memorial Student Center at Texas A&M University in College Station, United States
Duration: 13 Feb 202314 Feb 2023


Conference2023 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference (TPEC)
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


  • Deep learning
  • bidirectional mechanism
  • gated recurrent unit
  • grid stability prediction
  • interval prediction


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