Building an understanding of Ethnic minority people’s Service Use Relating to Emergency care for injuries: the BE SURE study protocol

Fadi Baghdadi, Bridie Angela Evans, Steve Goodacre, Paul Anthony John, Thanuja Hettiarachchi, Ann John, Ronan A Lyons, Alison Porter, Solmaz Safari, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, Helen Snooks, Alan Watkins, Julia Williams, Ashrafunnesa Khanom

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Introduction: Injuries are a major public health problem which can lead to disability or death. However, little is known about the incidence, presentation, management and outcomes of emergency care for patients with injuries among people from ethnic minorities in the UK. The aim of this study is to investigate what may differ for people from ethnic minorities compared with white British people when presenting with injury to ambulance and Emergency Departments (EDs).

Methods and analysis: This mixed methods study covers eight services, four ambulance services (three in England and one in Scotland) and four hospital EDs, located within each ambulance service. The study has five Work Packages (WP): (WP1) scoping review comparing mortality by ethnicity of people presenting with injury to emergency services; (WP2) retrospective analysis of linked NHS routine data from patients who present to ambulances or EDs with injury over 5 years (2016–2021); (WP3) postal questionnaire survey of 2000 patients (1000 patients from ethnic minorities and 1000 white British patients) who present with injury to ambulances or EDs including self-reported outcomes (measured by Quality of Care Monitor and Health Related Quality of Life measured by SF-12); (WP4) qualitative interviews with patients from ethnic minorities (n=40) and focus groups—four with asylum seekers and refugees and four with care providers and (WP5) a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative findings.

Ethics and dissemination: This study received a favourable opinion by the Wales Research Ethics Committee (305391). The Health Research Authority has approved the study and, on advice from the Confidentiality Advisory Group, has supported the use of confidential patient information without consent for anonymised data. Results will be shared with ambulance and ED services, government bodies and third-sector organisations through direct communications summarising scientific conference proceedings and publications.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere069596
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number4
Early online date25 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2023


  • Emergency medicine
  • 1506
  • 1691
  • accident & emergency medicine
  • public health
  • qualitative research
  • routine data
  • emergency care records
  • Minority Groups
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Humans
  • Ethnicity
  • Quality of Life
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ethnic and Racial Minorities
  • Emergency Medical Services


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