CCR4-associated factor 1 coordinates the expression of Plasmodium falciparum egress and invasion proteins

Bharath Balu, Steven P Maher, Alena Pance, Chitra Chauhan, Anatoli V Naumov, Robert M Andrews, Peter D Ellis, Shahid M Khan, Jing-Wen Lin, Chris J Janse, Julian C Rayner, John H Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Coordinated regulation of gene expression is a hallmark of the Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood-stage development cycle. We report that carbon catabolite repressor protein 4 (CCR4)-associated factor 1 (CAF1) is critical in regulating more than 1,000 genes during malaria parasites' intraerythrocytic stages, especially egress and invasion proteins. CAF1 knockout results in mistimed expression, aberrant accumulation and localization of proteins involved in parasite egress, and invasion of new host cells, leading to premature release of predominantly half-finished merozoites, drastically reducing the intraerythrocytic growth rate of the parasite. This study demonstrates that CAF1 of the CCR4-Not complex is a significant gene regulatory mechanism needed for Plasmodium development within the human host.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1257-63
Number of pages7
JournalEukaryotic Cell (EC)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Erythrocytes/parasitology
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Host-Parasite Interactions/genetics
  • Humans
  • Life Cycle Stages
  • Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology
  • Merozoites/metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods
  • Plasmodium falciparum/genetics
  • Transcription Factors/genetics


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