Chemokines and chemokine receptors in colorectal cancer; multifarious roles and clinical impact

Maria Braoudaki, Mohammed Saqif Ahmad, Denis Mustafov, Sara Seriah, Mohammad Naseem Siddiqui, Shoib Siddiqui

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered the second cause of cancer death worldwide. The early diagnosis plays a key role in patient prognosis and subsequently overall survival. Similar to several types of cancer, colorectal cancer is also characterised by drug resistance and heterogeneity that contribute to its complexity -especially at advanced stages. However, despite the extensive research related to the identification of biomarkers associated to early diagnosis, accurate prognosis and the management of CRC patients, little progress has been made thus far. Therefore, the mortality rates, especially at advanced stages, remain high. A large family of chemoattractant cytokines called chemokines are known for their significant role in inflammation and immunity. Chemokines released by the different tumorous cells play a key role in increasing the complexity of the tumour's microenvironment. The current review investigates the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in colorectal cancer and their potential as clinical molecular signatures that could be effectively used as a personalised therapeutic approach. We discussed how chemokine and chemokine receptors regulate the microenvironment and lead to heterogeneity in CRC. An important aspect of chemokines is their role in drug resistance which has been extensively discussed. This review also provides an overview of the current advances in the search for chemokines and chemokine receptors in CRC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)436-449
Number of pages14
JournalSeminars in Cancer Biology
Issue numberPart 2
Early online date11 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2022


  • Chemokine receptors
  • Chemokines
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Drug resistance
  • Tumour heterogeneity


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