Two dsRNAs from cherry trees affected with cherry chlorotic rusty spot (CCRS) in Italy and Amasya cherry disease (ACD) in Turkey were sequenced and found to be essentially identical. The larger dsRNA 1 (2021 or 2006 bp, respectively) potentially encoded a protein of 621 aa containing the conserved motifs of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of dsRNA mycoviruses, having highest similarity with those in the genus Partitivirus. The smaller dsRNA 2 (1841 or 1839 bp, respectively) had properties consistent with the second genomic component of a partitivirus and potentially encoded the coat protein (CP) of 504 aa. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp and CP was coincidental and indicated that species in the genus Partitivirus could be separated into two subgroups. Because species of this genus only infect fungi, these observations suggest a fungal aetiology for CCRS and ACD, further substantiating a previous proposal (see accompanying paper by Covelli et al., 2004, in this issue).