Clustering properties of intermediate and high-mass Young Stellar Objects

Miguel Vioque, Manuel Cavieres, Michelangelo Pantaleoni González, Álvaro Ribas, R.D. Oudmaijer, I. Mendigutia, Lena Kilian, Héctor Canovas, Michael Kuhn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We have selected 337 intermediate and high-mass YSOs (1.5 to 20 M⊙) well-characterised with spectroscopy. By means of the clustering algorithm HDBSCAN, we study their clustering and association properties in the Gaia DR3 catalogue as a function of stellar mass. We find that the lower mass YSOs (1.5−4 M⊙) have clustering rates of 55−60% in Gaia astrometric space, a percentage similar to the one found in the T Tauri regime. However, intermediate-mass YSOs in the range 4−10 M⊙ show a decreasing clustering rate with stellar mass, down to 27%. We find tentative evidence suggesting that massive YSOs (>10 M⊙) often appear −yet not always− clustered. We put forward the idea that most massive YSOs form via a mechanism that demands many low-mass stars around them. However, intermediate-mass YSOs form in a classical core-collapse T Tauri way, yet they do not appear often in the clusters around massive YSOs. We also find that intermediate and high-mass YSOs become less clustered with decreasing disk emission and accretion rate. This points towards an evolution with time. For those sources that appear clustered, no major correlation is found between their stellar properties and the cluster sizes, number of cluster members, cluster densities, or distance to cluster centres. In doing this analysis, we report the identification of 55 new clusters. We present tabulated all the derived cluster parameters for the considered intermediate and high-mass YSOs.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages27
JournalThe Astronomical Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 6 Sept 2023


  • Star formation
  • Clustering
  • Young star clusters
  • Star clusters
  • Young stellar objects
  • Herbig Ae/Be stars
  • Massive stars
  • T Tauri
  • Emission line
  • Protoplanetary discs


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