Co-Efficient Vector Based Differential Distributed Quasi-Orthogonal Space Time Frequency Coding

Nnamdi Nwanekezie, Oluyomi Simpson, Gbenga Owojaiye, Yichuang Sun

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Distributed space time frequency coding (DSTFC) schemes address problems of performance degradation encountered by cooperative broadband networks operating in highly mobile environments. Channel state information (CSI) acquisition is, however, impractical in such highly mobile environments. Therefore, to address this problem, designers focus on incorporating differential designs with DSTFC for signal recovery in environments where neither the relay nodes nor destination have CSI. Traditionally, unitary matrix-based differential designs have been used to generate the differentially encoded symbols and codeword matrices. Unitary based designs are suitable for cooperative networks that utilize the amplify-and-forward protocol where the relay nodes are typically required to forego differential decoding. In considering other scenarios where relay nodes are compelled to differentially decode and re-transmit information signals, we propose a novel co-efficient vector differential distributed quasi-orthogonal space time frequency coding (DQSTFC) scheme for decode-and-forward cooperative networks. Our proposed space time frequency coding scheme relaxes the need for constant channel gain in the temporal and frequency dimensions over long symbol periods; thus, performance degradation is reduced in frequency-selective and time-selective fading environments. Simulation results illustrate the performance of our proposed co-efficient vector differential DQSTFC scheme under different channel conditions. Through pair-wise error probability analysis, we derive the full diversity design criteria for our code.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7540
Number of pages18
Issue number17
Early online date30 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023


  • differential distributed space time frequency coding
  • quasi-orthogonal codes
  • co-efficient vectors
  • unitary matrices


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