Combining orthopaedic special tests to improve diagnosis of shoulder pathology.

Eric Hegedus, Chad Cook, Jeremy Lewis, Alexis Wright, J-Y Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)


The use of orthopedic special tests (OSTs) to diagnose shoulder pathology via the clinical examination is standard in clinical practice. There is a great deal of research on special tests but much of the research is of a lower quality implying that the metrics from that research, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios, is likely to vary greatly in the hands of different clinicians and in varying practice environments. A way to improve the clinical diagnostic process is to cluster OSTs and to use these clusters to either rule in or out different pathologies. The aim of the article is to review the best OST clusters, examine the methodology by which they were derived, and illustrate, with a case study, the use of these OST clusters to arrive at a pathology-based diagnosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-92
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
Issue number2
Early online date10 Aug 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015


  • likelihood ratios
  • shoulder
  • diagnosis


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