Cooperative RIS and STAR-RIS assisted mMIMO Communication: Analysis and Optimization

Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos, Ahmet M. Elbir, Pandelis Kourtessis, Ioannis Krikidis, Symeon Chatzinotas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has emerged as a cost-effective and promising solution to extend the wireless signal coverage and improve the performance via passive signal reflection. Different from existing works which do not account for the cooperation between RISs or do not provide full space coverage, we propose the marriage of cooperative double-RIS with simultaneously transmitting and reflecting RIS (STAR-RIS) technologies denoted as RIS/STAR-RIS under correlated Rayleigh fading conditions to assist the communication in a massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) setup. The proposed architecture is superior since it enjoys the benefits of the individual designs. We introduce a channel estimation approach of the cascaded channels with reduced overhead. Also, we obtain the deterministic equivalent (DE) of the downlink achievable sum spectral efficiency (SE) in closed form based on large-scale statistics. Notably, relied on statistical channel state information (CSI), we optimise both surfaces by means of the projected gradient ascent method (PGAM), and obtain the gradients in closed form. The proposed optimization achieves to maximise the sum SE of such a complex system, and has low complexity and low overhead since it can be performed at every several coherence intervals. Numerical results show the benefit of the proposed architecture and verify the analytical framework. In particular, we show that the RIS/STAR-RIS architecture outperforms the conventional double-RIS or its single-RIS counterparts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11975 - 11989
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2023


  • 6G networks
  • Array signal processing
  • Channel estimation
  • correlated Rayleigh fading
  • Double-RIS
  • Optimization
  • Protocols
  • Rayleigh channels
  • Reflection
  • simultaneously transmitting and reflecting RIS
  • spectral efficiency
  • Wireless communication


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