Correlations of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use behavior and psychiatric conditions from a cross-sectional survey

Oliver Grundmann, Charles A Veltri, Sara Morcos, Kirsten E Smith, Darshan Singh, Ornella Corazza, Eduardo Cinosi, Giovanni Martinotti, Zach Walsh, Marc T Swogger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use has increased substantially over the past decade outside of its indigenous regions, especially for the self-treatment of psychiatric conditions. An anonymous, crosssectional, online survey was completed by 4,945 people who use kratom (PWUK) between July 2019 and July 2020. A total of 2,296 respondents completed an extended survey that included clinical scales for measuring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety disorders. PWUK and met criteria for ADHD, PTSD, depressive or anxiety disorders were primarily middle-aged (31–50 years), employed, college-level educated, and reported greater concurrent or prior use of kratom with cannabis, cannabidiol, and benzodiazepines. For all psychiatric conditions, PWUK reported decreased depressive and anxious moods than before kratom use. Based on this self-report study, observational and other clinical studies are warranted for kratom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)963-977
Number of pages15
JournalExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Issue number5
Early online date12 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2023


  • Adhd
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Kratom
  • Ptsd
  • Anxiety/epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Self Report
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Mitragyna


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