Crisis and the Role of Money in the Real and Financial Economies - An Innovative Approach to Monetary Stimulus

Richard Simmons, Paolo Dini, Nigel Culkin, Guiseppe Littera

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‘Financial crisis’ is sometimes regarded as synonymous with ‘economic crisis’, but this is an oversimplification and risks missing the feedback loops between the financial and real economies. In this paper, the role of money is revisited in the context of distinguishing the real economy from the financial economy. A theoretical framework is developed to explain how endogenous (bank credit) and exogenous (quantitative easing, QE) money creation feed into the real and financial economies. It looks at how the velocity of monetary circulation varies between the two economies and across asset types within the financial economy. Monetary transmission mechanisms are set into a framework that helps explain how QE stimulus risks combining asset price bubbles with poor growth in the real economy. The real economy transmission mechanism of ‘helicopter money’ is given context, enabling an assessment of the efficacy of both the QE and helicopter money policy routes. Finally, we present a new additional type of monetary transmission, ‘Smart Helicopter Money’, to deliver monetary stimulus to innovators, SMEs and high-growth firms via both complementary currencies and a modified form of QE in order to achieve proportionally greater impact on the real economy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number129
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Risk and Financial Management (JRFM)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2021


  • Monetary Policy
  • Financial Crisis
  • Helicopter Money
  • Real Economy
  • Financial Economy
  • Quantitative Easing
  • Complementary Currency
  • Velocity of Circulation
  • Innovation
  • Economic growth


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