Current Practices and the Future of Robotic Surgical Training

Ankit Sinha, Alexander West, Nikhil Vasdev, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Abhay Rane, Prokar Dasgupta, Michael McKirdy

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Introduction: This study reviews the current state of robotic surgery training for surgeons, including the various curricula, training methods, and tools available, as well as the challenges and limitations of these.
Methods: The authors carried out a literature search across PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar using keywords related to ‘robotic surgery’, ‘computer-assisted surgery’, ‘simulation’, ‘virtual reality’, ‘surgical training’, and ‘surgical education’. Full text analysis was performed on 112 articles.
Training Programmes: The training program for robotic surgery should focus on proficiency, deliberation, and distribution principles. The curricula can be broadly split up into pre-console and console-side training.
Pre-Console and Console-Side Training: Simulation training is an important aspect of robotic surgery training to improve technical skill acquisition and reduce mental workload, which helps prepare trainees for live procedures.
Operative Performance Assessment: The study also discusses the various validated assessment tools used for operative performance assessments.
Future Advances: Finally, the authors propose potential future directions for robotic surgery training, including the use of emerging technologies such as AI and machine learning for real-time feedback, remote mentoring, and augmented reality platforms like Proximie to reduce costs and overcome geographic limitations.
Conclusion: Standardisation in trainee performance assessment is needed. Each of the robotic curricula and platforms has strengths and weaknesses. The ERUS Robotic Curriculum represents an evidence-based example of how to implement training from novice to expert. Remote mentoring and augmented reality platforms can overcome the challenges of high equipment costs and limited access to experts. Emerging technologies offer promising advancements for real-time feedback and immersive training environments, improving patient outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalThe Surgeon
Early online date15 Mar 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Mar 2023


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