Day-Ahead Load Demand Forecasting in Urban Community Cluster Microgrids Using Machine Learning Methods

Sivakavi Naga Venkata Bramareswara Rao, Venkata Pavan Kumar Yellapragada, Kottala Padma, Darsy John Pradeep, Challa Pradeep Reddy, Mohammad Amir, Shady S. Refaat

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The modern-day urban energy sector possesses the integrated operation of various microgrids located in a vicinity, named cluster microgrids, which helps to reduce the utility grid burden. However, these cluster microgrids require a precise electric load projection to manage the operations, as the integrated operation of multiple microgrids leads to dynamic load demand. Thus, load forecasting is a complicated operation that requires more than statistical methods. There are different machine learning methods available in the literature that are applied to single microgrid cases. In this line, the cluster microgrids concept is a new application, which is very limitedly discussed in the literature. Thus, to identify the best load forecasting method in cluster microgrids, this article implements a variety of machine learning algorithms, including linear regression (quadratic), support vector machines, long short-term memory, and artificial neural networks (ANN) to forecast the load demand in the short term. The effectiveness of these methods is analyzed by computing various factors such as root mean square error, R-square, mean square error, mean absolute error, mean absolute percentage error, and time of computation. From this, it is observed that the ANN provides effective forecasting results. In addition, three distinct optimization techniques are used to find the optimum ANN training algorithm: Levenberg−Marquardt, Bayesian Regularization, and Scaled Conjugate Gradient. The effectiveness of these optimization algorithms is verified in terms of training, test, validation, and error analysis. The proposed system simulation is carried out using the MATLAB/Simulink-2021a® software. From the results, it is found that the Levenberg−Marquardt optimization algorithm-based ANN model gives the best electrical load forecasting results.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6124
Issue number17
Early online date23 Aug 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Aug 2022


  • ANN training algorithms
  • cluster microgrids
  • load demand forecasting
  • machine learning methods
  • urban energy community


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