Direct measurements of carbon and sulfur isotope ratios in the Milky Way

Y. T. Yan, C. Henkel, C. Kobayashi, K. M. Menten, Y. Gong, J. S. Zhang, H. Z. Yu, K. Yang, J. J. Xie, X.Y. Wang

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With the IRAM 30-m telescope, we performed observations of the $J$ = 2-1 transitions of CS, C$^{33}$S, C$^{34}$S, C$^{36}$S, $^{13}$CS, $^{13}$C$^{33}$S, and $^{13}$C$^{34}$S as well as the $J$ = 3-2 transitions of C$^{33}$S, C$^{34}$S, C$^{36}$S, and $^{13}$CS toward a large sample of 110 HMSFRs. We measured the $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C, $^{32}$S/$^{34}$S, $^{32}$S/$^{33}$S, $^{32}$S/$^{36}$S, $^{34}$S/$^{33}$S, $^{34}$S/$^{36}$S, and $^{33}$S/$^{36}$S abundance ratios with rare isotopologues of CS, thus avoiding significant saturation effects. With accurate distances obtained from parallax data, we confirm previously identified $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C and $^{32}$S/$^{34}$S gradients as a function of galactocentric distance (RGC). In the CMZ $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratios are higher than suggested by a linear fit to the disk values as a function of RGC. While $^{32}$S/$^{34}$S ratios near the Galactic center and in the inner disk are similar, this is not the case for $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C, when comparing central values with those near RGC of 5 kpc. As was already known, there is no $^{34}$S/$^{33}$S gradient but the average ratio of 4.35~$\pm$~0.44, derived from the $J$ = 2-1 transition lines of C$^{34}$S and C$^{33}$S, is well below previously reported values. A comparison between solar and local interstellar $^{32}$S/$^{34}$S and $^{34}$S/$^{33}$S ratios suggests that the solar system may have been formed from gas with a particularly high $^{34}$S abundance. For the first time, we report positive gradients of $^{32}$S/$^{33}$S, $^{34}$S/$^{36}$S, $^{33}$S/$^{36}$S and $^{32}{\rm S}/^{36}{\rm S}$ in our Galaxy. The predicted $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratios from the latest GCE models are in good agreement with our results, while $^{32}$S/$^{34}$S and $^{32}$S/$^{36}$S ratios show larger differences at larger RGC, $^{32}$S/$^{33}$S ratios show an offset across the entire inner 12 kpc of the Milky Way.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA98
Pages (from-to)1/63
Number of pages63
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Early online date14 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2023


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