Effect of the core bone engaged length on the BASHTI fixation strength, an in-vitro study on bovine tendons using identical-density surrogate bones

Hadi Moeinnia, Amir Nourani, Mahdi Mohseni, Amirhossein Borjali, Narges Ghias, Hossein Korani, Mahmoud Chizari

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Background: BASHTI is an implant-less anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique, which resolves the problems caused by implants such as interference screws. This study aims to investigate the effect of the drill bit and tendon’s diameter on the Core Bone Engaged Length (CBEL) and the fixation strength. CBEL is the length of core bone which has a full engagement with both tunnel and graft at the same time.

Methods: 60 in-vitro tests were conducted for 6, 7, 8, and 9 mm tendon sizes with a 10 mm bone tunnel. In this study bovine tendons and dummy bone blocks were used to model the fixation. Drill bits were used to extract the core bone for securing the auto-graft. A three-stage tensile test including a force-controlled cyclical preloading of 10–50 N with a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 10 cycles, followed by the main force-controlled cyclical loading of 50–200 N with a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 150 cycles, and immediately a displacement-controlled single cycle pull-out load with a rate of 20 mm/min were carried out to discover the fixation strength of each sample.

Results: The 6 mm group had the greatest CBEL. However, all cases in this group failed in loadings below 200 N, which is the minimum required strength after ACL reconstruction. The fixation strength of cases with more than 200 N fixation strength for 7, 8, and 9 mm tendon diameters were 275 ± 42, 330 ± 110, and 348 ± 93 N, respectively, showing insignificant difference between groups (P-value = 0.45). Nevertheless, CBELs for these groups were 16.6 ± 3.4, 9.6 ± 2.4, and 11.7 ± 3.8 mm, respectively, implying a significant increase in CBEL in the 7 mm group than that for 8 and 9 mm groups (P-value = 0.002 and 0.049, respectively).

Conclusion: Results showed that CBEL could assess the quality of BASHTI technique. However, CBEL was an inverse function of tendon compression, so it was not an independent parameter to determine BASHTI strength. Also, the CBEL of 7 mm group which fulfilled the 200 N threshold was higher than that of 8 and 9 mm groups, so its healing process speed may be higher, which is recommended for a future study in this field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number226
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Issue number1
Early online date25 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2023


  • Research
  • ACL reconstruction
  • BASHTI technique
  • Fixation strength
  • Bone plug
  • Knee biomechanics
  • Orthopaedic biomechanics
  • Humans
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery
  • Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Tendons/transplantation
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction


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