Effects of sand and gating architecture on the performance of foot valve lever casting components used in pump industries

I. Rajkumar, N. Rajini, S. Siengchin, Sikiru O. Ismail, F. Mohammad, H. A. Al-Lohedan, Ahmed M. Tawfeek, Zuheir A. Issa

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This work addresses manufacture, testing and simulation of foot valve lever (FVL) for monoblock pump industry, using a cost-effective casting design process. The impact of different types of sands, such as air-set, dry and sodium silicate as well as gating designs, namely H-, U- and O-type, were studied with respect to surface roughness and porosity. The mold pattern was produced using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Both experimental and numerical investigations were performed on the temperature distribution of molten metal at random locations for the different gating configurations or designs, considering mold filling and solidification. It was evident from the experimental investigation that contribution of air-set sand and O-type gating architecture showed limited consistency effects. Importantly, gating architecture was the most influential parameter to determine all specified quality outcomes, independent of sand mold. An order of O < H < U-type was obtained from the gating designs for minimal surface roughness and percentage of porosity. Furthermore, the microstructure analysis depicted only an irregular defect with minimum quantity at both surface and cross-section of O-type at two different locations. Optimum pouring temperatures of 740, 750 and 790 °C were obtained for mold filling of all 24 components of H-, O- and U-type of gating designs, respectively. The varying solidification temperature was observed from real time thermocouple reading, which was in close agreement with the numerical simulation. Evidently, O-type of gating design exhibited best performance for large-scale development of the FVL in terms of surface roughness, porosity and cooling effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1653-1666
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Early online date4 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Experiment
  • Gating designs
  • Porosity
  • Sand types
  • Simulation
  • Surface roughness


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