Emergence of high-mass stars in complex fiber networks (EMERGE). I. Early ALMA Survey: observations and massive data reduction

A. Hacar, A. Socci, F. Bonanomi, D. Petry, M. Tafalla, D. Harsono, J. Forbrich, J. Alves, J. Grossschedl, J. R. Goicoechea, J. Pety, A. Burkert, G. X. Li

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Abstract

(Abridged) Recent molecular surveys have revealed a rich gas organization of sonic-like fibers in all kind of environments prior to the formation of low- and high-mass stars. This paper introduces the EMERGE project aiming to investigate whether complex fiber arrangements could explain the origin of high-mass stars and clusters. We analyzed the EMERGE Early ALMA Survey including 7 star-forming regions in Orion (OMC-1/2/3/4 South, L1641N, NGC2023, and Flame Nebula) homogeneously surveyed in both molecular lines (N$_2$H$^+$ J=1-0, HNC J=1-0, plus HC3N J=10-9) and 3mm-continuum using a combination of interferometric ALMA mosaics and IRAM-30m single-dish (SD) maps. Based on our low-resolution (SD) observations, we describe the global properties of our sample covering a wide range of physical conditions including low-, intermediate, and high-mass star-forming regions in different evolutionary stages. Their comparison with ancillary YSO catalogs denotes N$_2$H$^+$ as the best proxy for the dense, star-forming gas in our targets showing a constant star formation efficiency and a fast time evolution of
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages37
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 6 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • astro-ph.GA
  • astro-ph.SR

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