OBJECTIVES: First-line treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are limited. NVB302 is a novel type B lantibiotic under evaluation for the treatment of CDI. We compared the responses to NVB302 and vancomycin when used to treat simulated CDI in an in vitro gut model. METHODS: We used ceftriaxone to elicit simulated CDI in an in vitro gut model primed with human faeces. Vancomycin and NVB302 were instilled into separate gut models and the indigenous gut microbiota and C. difficile total viable counts, spores and toxin levels were monitored throughout. RESULTS: Ceftriaxone instillation promoted C. difficile germination and high-level toxin production. Commencement of NVB302 and vancomycin instillation reduced C. difficile total viable counts rapidly with only C. difficile spores remaining within 3 and 4 days, respectively. Cytotoxin was reduced to undetectable levels 5 and 7 days after vancomycin and NVB302 instillation commenced in vessel 2 and 3, respectively, and remained undetectable for the remainder of the experiments. C. difficile spores were unaffected by the presence of vancomycin or NVB302. NVB302 treatment was associated with faster resolution of Bacteroides fragilis group. CONCLUSIONS: Both NVB302 and vancomycin were effective in treating simulated CDI in an in vitro gut model. C. difficile spore recrudescence was not observed following successful treatment with either NVB302 or vancomycin. NVB302 displayed non-inferiority to vancomycin in the treatment of simulated CDI, and had less deleterious effects against B. fragilis group. NVB302 warrants further clinical investigation as a potentially novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of CDI.