Experimental and simulation analysis on multi-gate variants in sand casting process

I. Rajkumar, N. Rajini, A. Alavudeen, T. Ram Prabhu, S. O. Ismail, F. Mohammad, H. A. Al-Lohedan

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The present work proposes an improved multi-gate designs (MGDs) in sand casting process, using both experimental and simulation (FLOW 3D) approaches, aiming to produce defect-free component. In this regard, the variant MGDs were developed and compared with the existing designs reported in the previous studies. Accordingly, the following new MGDs: side sprue serial connection (SSSC), centre sprue serial connection (CSSC), side sprue parallel connection (SSPC), centre sprue parallel connection (CSPC) and centre sprue runnerextension parallel connection (CS-RE-PC) were modelled for both techniques. The experimental set-ups were developed for the aforementioned designs to study the flow behaviour of aluminium alloy and water. The validity of aluminium alloy flow characteristics in closed mould condition was checked with the water mould experimentation. The quality of the casting was examined by visual inspection, optical microscopy, ultrasonic and X-ray tests. From the results obtained, it was evident that CS-RE-PC mould set-up or design was most suitable with a runner system for four-cavity application. This design exhibited best flow rate, as a nearly defect-free casting component was produced. Comparison of the FLOW 3D simulation results with similar experimentalfindings provided potential opportunity to reduce both cast product rejection rate and rework, and consequently it aids enhancement of the productivity and profitability in a manufacturing/casting industry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-131
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Early online date25 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • Casting
  • Defects
  • Experimental and simulation
  • Liquid aluminium alloy/metal
  • Multi-gate system
  • Water


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