Experimental optimization of various heat sinks using passive thermal management system

Imran Zahid, Adnan Qamar, Muhammad Farooq, Fahid Riaz, Muhammad Salman Habib, Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Sultan, Ateekh Ur Rehman, Muhammad Aamer Hayat

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Organic phase change materials are extensively researched for passive cooling of electronic components due to the high heat of fusion, however, owing to the issue of thermal conductivity, it is difficult to improve the thermal performance of electronic components. However, the effective thermal performance of modern electronic devices is becoming popular due to thermal constraints of the circuit's non-uniform temperature distribution and high heating power generation. Thus, nanomaterials incorporated into phase change materials (PCMs) to improve thermal conductivity, which aids in heat removal and sustains significant heat sink operational performance for extended periods of time. In current research work, at heating powers of (10–30 W), the thermal performance outcome of three heat sink -configurations such as unfinned heat sink, circular pin-finned heat sink and metallic foam integrated heat sink were investigated with several alumina nanomaterials mass concentrations (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 wt%) incorporated in phase change materials (for example RT-70HC). All three heat sinks revealed lower base temperature with the addition of alumina NePCM (αRT-70HC) phase change materials in their internal cavity compared to the empty unfinned heat sink. The findings showed good performance of metallic foam integrated heat sink in lowering the temperature & increasing safe functional time at two distinct temperatures. The largest decrease in temperature was found to be 35.76% and the largest growth in maximum functional time was 400% for metallic foam integrated heat sink. Therefore, using alumina nanomaterials in phase change material is recommended to optimize the thermal performance of the passive cooling techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103262
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalCase Studies in Thermal Engineering
Early online date10 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2023


  • Circular pin-fin heat sink
  • Metallic foam
  • Phase change materials
  • Safe functional time
  • Unfinned heat sink


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