Explicit dynamic formulation to demonstrate compliance against quasi-static aircraft seat certification loads (CS25.561) - Part II: Influence of body blocks

Kevin Hughes, Omkar Gulavani, Tom De Vuyst, Rade Vignjevic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Loading an aerospace and automotive seat statically through lap or body blocks is a complex and highly non-linear problem, as the key numerical challenge is to replicate the contact and slipping kinematics between seat, lap block and belt. In addition, severe element distortions and unexpected contact between parts can occur due to the large deformations involved, which result in implicit solvers struggling to find a converged solution. This paper focuses on the use of an explicit Finite Element Analysis (FEA) solver (LS-DYNA3D) for an aircraft seat subject to Certification Specifications CS25.561, although the ideas presented are equally applicable to automotive seat designers. Explicit codes are better able to overcome contact convergence issues and are often used with appropriate damping to achieve a quasi-static solution. This paper reviews the methodology presented in Part I, whereby issues relating to damping, mass and time scaling are outlined in order to overcome the high computational time step costs (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition), together with the procedural and error checks required to ensure a quasi-static response. This paper extends the methodology by considering load cases that use lap blocks, such as 'forward 9g' and 'upward 3g' certification requirements. Alternative modelling approaches to represent the loading mechanism and effect of lap block mass on solution accuracy are discussed. This paper concludes with a verification framework that outlines the quality checks on various model energies and their ratios, where the numerical results are validated against test in terms of displacements and seat kinematics. Thus, 'Part I' and 'Part II' cover all elements related with the application of an explicit dynamic integration scheme to demonstrate static seat compliance, and together, form a clear framework to assist a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analyst involved in applying an explicit integration scheme to solve non-linear quasi-static analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1890-1903
Number of pages14
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering
Issue number10
Early online date8 Oct 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014


  • body block
  • error checks
  • explicit integration
  • finite elements
  • methodology
  • Static certification (CS25.561)


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