The colonisation of a radish root system by strains ofPseudomonas fluorescens, selected for their ability to promote potato and radish growth under different environmental conditions is reported. In pot experiments colonisation of different parts of the root system was measured at different temperatures, in different watering regimes and in sterile and recropped soil. Root colonisation was extensive but populations were highest on the upper root system and their distribution throughout the root system was greatly affected by environmental factors. percolation of water through the soil and partial soil sterilisation enhanced colonisation but the effects of temperature and recropping were complex. Growth promotion was unpredictable and there was no simple relationship between PGPR colonisation and stimulation of plant growth.