Poultry litter (PL) gasification was experimentally investigated using a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor. Characterisation of the gasification process was performed in terms of yields and compositions of both gas and tar, lower calorific value (LCV) of the product gas, cold gas efficiency (CGE) and carbon conversion efficiency (CCE). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (700–750 °C) and equivalence ratios (ERs). The effect of gasifier temperature at a constant ER of 0.21 shows that an increase in temperature improved the gasification process performance whilst the total tar content decreased, implying that higher temperature enhances the conversion of biomass to product gas. The total gas yield increased from 0.93 to 1.24 N2-free m3/kgfeedstock-daf, LCV increased from 3.38 MJ/m3 to 4.2 MJ/m3, while the tar content was reduced by 24% (5.6–4.25 gtar/kgfeedstock-daf). The detailed analyses of tar compositions reveal that styrene and xylenes were the most abundant compounds in the secondary tar group. Moreover, naphthalene and 1, 2-methyl naphthalene were the dominant compounds found in tertiary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkyl tertiary groups, respectively. Furthermore, at the highest tested temperature of 750 °C and ER of 0.25, bed agglomeration took place causing the shutdown of the gasifier. The defluidisation of the bed occurred due to the high ash content of PL comprising of low melting temperature alkali compounds. The results obtained from this study showed the performance and potential challenges associated with gasifying PL in a fluidised bed reactor for the combined heat and power production at farm level.
- Bubbling fluidised bed
- Poultry litter