Global Trends of Prostate Cancer by Age, and Their Associations with GDP, HDI, Smoking, and Alcohol Drinking

Junjie Huang, Erica On-Ting Chan, Xianjing Liu, Veeleah Lok, Chun Ho Ngai, Lin Zhang, Wanghong Xu, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Peter Ka-Fung Chiu, Nikhil Vasdev, Dmitry Enikeev, Shahrokh F Shariat, Chi Fai Ng, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Martin C S Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Prostate cancer is the leading cause of urological malignancy and the second most common cancer in males. We aimed to examine the global disease burden and trends of prostate cancer incidence and mortality by age, and their associations with gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), smoking, and alcohol drinking.

Design, Setting and Participants
We retrieved the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) database for the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020; the World Bank for GDP per capita; the United Nations for HDI; the WHO Global Health Observatory for prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking; the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5), WHO mortality database, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Programme and Nordic Cancer Registries (NORDCAN) for trend analysis.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
We presented the prostate cancer incidence and mortality using age-standardised rates (ASRs). We examined their associations with GDP, HDI, smoking, and alcohol drinking by Spearman’s correlations and multivariable regression. We estimated the 10-year trend of incidence and mortality by joinpoint regression analysis with average annual percent change (AAPCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in different age groups (≥ 50 years vs < 50 years).
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusSubmitted - 4 Oct 2021


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