Global Trends of Prostate Cancer by Age, and Their Associations with Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Human Development Index (HDI), Smoking, and Alcohol Drinking

Junjie Huang, Erica On-Ting Chan, Xianjing Liu, Veeleah Lok, Chun Ho Ngai, Lin Zhang, Wanghong Xu, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Peter Ka-Fung Chiu, Nikhil Vasdev, Dmitry Enikeev, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Chi-Fai Ng, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Martin CS Wong

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Abstract

Background: We aimed to examine the global disease burden and trends of prostate cancer incidence and mortality by age, and their associations with gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), smoking, and alcohol drinking. Materials and Methods: We retrieved the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) database for the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020; the World Bank for GDP per capita; the United Nations for HDI; the WHO Global Health Observatory for prevalence of smoking and alcohol drinking; the Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents (CI5), WHO mortality database, for trend analysis. We presented the prostate cancer incidence and mortality using age-standardized rates. We examined their associations with GDP, HDI, smoking, and alcohol drinking by Spearman's correlations and multivariable regression. We estimated the 10-year trend of incidence and mortality by joinpoint regression analysis with average annual percent change with 95% confidence intervals in different age groups. Results: A wide variation in the burden of prostate cancer with the highest mortality found in low-income countries while the highest incidence was observed in high-income countries. We found moderate to high positive correlations for GDP, HDI, and alcohol drinking with prostate cancer incidence, whilst a low negative correlation was observed for smoking. Globally, there was an increasing incidence but decreasing mortality of prostate cancer, and such trends were particularly prominent in Europe. Notably, the incidence increase was also found in the younger population aged
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e261-e270
JournalClinical Genitourinary Cancer
Volume21
Issue number4
Early online date15 Feb 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Risk factors
  • Temporal trend

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