Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adults with Primary Immunodeficiencies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Dmitrii Peshko, Ekaterina Kulbachinskaya, Ilya Korsunskiy, Elena Kondrikova, Federica Pulvirenti, Isabella Quinti, Oleg Blyuss, Audrey Dunn Galvin, Daniel Munblit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
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BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of diseases that have been found to have an adverse impact on quality of life and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess available evidence on the HRQOL of patients with PID.

METHODS: We performed a literature search of all studies reporting HRQOL assessments in patients with PID published in English from inception to April 11, 2017, using MEDLINE and EMBASE.

RESULTS: Of 1699 articles, 37 met the inclusion criteria. HRQOL was assessed by using various generic instruments. Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 and short-form 36 were the most frequently used (for children and adults, respectively). No PID-specific HRQOL instruments were used for children. HRQOL is significantly lower in adults with PID (mean score difference, -24.46; 95% CI, -34.57 to -14.34) and children (-10.06; 95% CI, -12.95 to -7.17) compared with the reference population and lower than in patients with other chronic conditions. There is a general agreement between child- and parent-reported data, although parents report child school-related HRQOL as more impaired than do children (6.19; 95% CI, 0.38 to 11.99). Most studies were of low to moderate quality and had methodological limitations.

CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence suggests that patients with PID have a lower HRQOL than do healthy individuals and patients with other chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. No disease-specific instruments are available for children, and few options are available for adults. This finding highlights the need for developing PID-specific instruments that would allow for a more sensitive evaluation of PID impact on patient health and psychological well-being, school/work, and social activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1929-1957.e5
Number of pages34
JournalThe Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Health-related quality of life
  • PID
  • Primary immunodeficiency diseases
  • Systematic review
  • quality of life


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